• Herdenking in Assen

  • Struikelstenen in Assen

  • Simon van Hasselt met zijn dochter Fietje op de Groninger Vismarkt (dank Kamp Westerbork afb. Jodenster)

  • Werkkampen

  • Deportaties vanaf 1942

  • Hopen op overlevenden

Copyright 2018 - Henk van den Beukel

Ongecategoriseerd

info
This website Sjoa Drenthe aims to give insight in the fate and the mutual family relations of the Jewisj inhabitants of Drenthe during the Second World War when the crazy storm of the Sjoa raged through Europa.


Character of this website
Indeed, already at many places data can be found for who wants to know more about this. But up till now an information platform was lacking, that with the specific focus of the province of Drenthe aims to provide an as complete as possible picture of the persons, who then lived with us in the streets of our villages and cities on the basis of their last known living addresses, their family information and experiences and also with references to other websites and literature.


Expanding this initiative together

To start with we composed from existing sources a total overview of the Jewish war victims in the province of Drenthe (with amongst others their last known living address). In order to find individual persons quicker in this document of 178 pages there is an alphabetical Persons register of the 1,444 Jewish inhabitants in Drente with the page and town, where they are mentioned.
When the project Sjoa Drenthe was launched this basic material together with other information on the project has been published a the bookDe Drentse Sjoa, Joodse oorlogsslachtoffers in de provincie Drenthe”. It can be ordered at the webshop of denieuwebestseller.nl for the price of € 17,50, incl VAT and excl cost of mail delivery.

We hope that this material will be expanded in the years to come by volunteers involved in the project and visitors of this site. We then think of new personal data, stories, pictures and references to other sites with genealogies of Jewish families or other interesting material.

In particular we are interested in the family relations among the Jewish war victims. The genealogy can help us here very much. More information on this genealogical material can be found under the caption "What stands where on this website".


Why
As we grow older these occurrences become more and more history, it transforms to something which once happened outside our experience…… unless it remains with you due to personal memories nearby or in your direct family.
Living consciously and knowledge of our history determine your identity. And our identity determines our motives, why we do the things we do, how we interact with each other. Also in our present society with ever more people with a different “national history” than ours of the past centuries.
Why could people then do such things to each other, letting this happen? And why were there then people who didn't accept it, that people could nowhere go anymore?
Because of that it still remains important today, that this bizarre period continues to live on based on concrete memories and does not fade away as "something which happened long time ago".


What stands where on this website
After you landed at the Homepage of this website all further information on this website is accessible via the menu bar, which actually contains 2 menu's in it, namely:

  • On one hand all buttons in the menu bar concern information with regard to the project  Sjoa Drenthe itself and more information like family trees, personal stories, literature and references to other information on the internet concerning this subject. Under the button <Persons> is explained how you may find your way to individual persons by using the HuMo-gen program with its various presentation options, or with the alphabetical Persons register in the document with the total overview of the 1,444 persons.

  • On the other hand you get by clicking on <Persons/HuMo-gen persons database> direct access to the menu of the HuMo-gen program with the various functions of the program, where the menu button <Stamboom> at the opening screen of that program gives access to the persons data in the database of the upperleft selected tree. Subsequently, you can generate online interactively all kind of different presentation formats for the persons you selected. At the start of the project that database contains more than 70,000 persons.

Sjoa Drenthe                  Description of the history Jewish communities in Drenthe and the traces of the former Jewish inhabitants at the time of the Sjoa.
Project info Who are involved in this project in which roles(core team, volunteers, other involved parties) and in which activities.
Focus Explanation of data, definitions and sources, starting points, war victims and survivors, mutual family relations, the addition of content/pictures
More info Several pages with other interesting sources (e.g. genealogies at family websites, literature, other websites concerning this subject, stories, etc.)
Persons •    Explanation of search- and presentation possibilities of HuMo-gen
      (o.a. individuele personen, families, laatst bekende woonplaats)
•    and direct access to the persons database and the HuMo-gen presentation menu
•    In addition to that the alphabetical Persons register of the 1,444  Jewish inhabitants of Drenthe of the "Total overview Jewish War victims 1940 - 1945"
Contact A contact form for questions, remarks, provision of data or corrections, applying for the Newsletter, etc. or directly at redactie(at)sjoa-drenthe.nl





The Total overview Jewish War victims 1940 - 1945 with the 1,444 Jewish inhabitants of Drenthe consists of more than 160 pages.
In order to find certain individual persons or their families there is an alphabetical Persons register, in which they can be found by mentioning their last known living addresses in the various towns in Drenthe and on which page.

references
name (standard) man
naam (italic) woman
(year)+ on “deportation list”, but no war victim
(year)- not on “deportation list”, but war victim

abbreviations
- Asn 
 Assen   - Dwg 
 Dwingeloo   - Mpl  
 Meppel            
  - Rnn  
 Ruinen           
  - Zwl  
 Zweeloo       
- Bln  Beilen   - E-P  Eelde-Paterswolde   - Mpn  Meppen   - Sln  Sleen      
- Brg  Borger   - Emn  Emmen   - Odn  Odoorn   - Smd  Smilde      
- Cvd  Coevorden      
  - Gtn  Gieten   - Rdn  Roden   - Wyk  de Wijk      
- Dln  Dalen   - Hgv  Hoogeveen   - Rld  Rolde   - Zln  Zuidlaren      

 

Numbers of Jewish inhabitants, war victims and survivors in Drenthe

Tabel   Eng
The background of the here by us mentioned figures of 1,446 Jewish inhabitants, of whom 1,237 war victims and 206 survivors *) as best indication for the Sjoa in Drenthe needs some further explanation.

We chose for this approach, because of the lack of reliable sources with hard figures on this subject voor the total period 1940-1945.

Due to the NIOD we have all deportation lists of the province of Drenthe at our disposal (with exclusion of Dwingeloo. The missing list-Dwingeloo is more than compensated by an exellent and extensive book on Jewish Dwingeloo during the war time). This collection was taken as starting point for our research on the genealogical relations between the Jewish families in the province of Drenthe, even though they don't give insight in the total Jewish population during the total period of the years 1940 t/m 1945. They are namely registered in a specific period (the early summer of 1942) with as explicit purpose: the as complete as possible deportation of the Jewish population of Drenthe. Theoretically, at most some Jews may have remained (deliberate or not) outside those lists.
The special nature of these lists is, however, that they are very exact and due to the Digital Jewish Monument we could furthermore exactly examine, how many persons mentioned on those lists, have perished. And in the same way we could further deduct, that it concerns 309 Jewish family names.

Annotations with regard to other sources
According to Hamburger and Regtien there lived “1,448 Jews in the province of Drenthe in October 1941”. It is, however, not clear who they included in that definition of Jews.
•    Is it a religious figure, namely the number of Jews associated with a synagogue? That is to be doubted. In case one would have written to all Jewish congregations - would there after the Sjoa still have been people who would be able to tell with authority, how many Jews were associated with their Synagogue in 1941, while just one of the consequences of the Sjoa was, that much of the congregation's administration had drifted away or disappeared. Would one have had to examine the tens of thousands of family registration cards of the Civil Administration of the municipalities of Drenthe whether people had been member of the Geref. Kerken, the Hervormde kerken or of an Israëlitisch kerkgenootschap?
•    Or does it concern, like the Germans had meant it, a racist figure? It would then become even more complicated, because according to the law civil administrations weren't allowed to discriminate and did not register what someone's race was. The first, also the last, racist census took place in the early summer of 1942; The result of that were the deportation lists, which did not pretend to give a total picture on 1941.
In short, the number of Hamburger and Regtien is difficult to compare with our figures, of pureblood Jews, people with four Jewish grandparents, and halfblood Jews, people with one, two, three or four Jewish ancestors.

The figures of the War memorials are unfortunately not reliable. The list of names on the Jewish monument in Assen is for instance very incomplete: the household staff, the German refugees and the assimilated Jews were not allowed to be mentioned on the monument. In Beilen they mentioned three persons, who did come from Beilen, but lived already for many years elsewhere. Etc., etc.

Finally, the figures of Croes and Tammes can not be exact, since computation of these would have required an impossible amount of time. To explain that: our small amount of 1,250 - 1% of the total - required at least five months of research. Would 500 months of research for their figures be plausible? The figures mentioned by them are thus not the result of own research, but extracted somewhere and don't provide a reliable ground for solid historical research.

 

*)  The figures in this table are due to intermediate additions to the material not completely identical anymore with the table in the book published in May 2016.

 

On this page we present titles of publications around the subject of the Sjoa in Drenthe.

General
- Marnix Thomas Croes en Pieter Johannes Rudolf Tammes: Gif laten wij niet voortbestaan. Een onderzoek naar de overlevingskansen van joden in de Nederlandse gemeenten, 1940-1945 (diss. KUN), Amsterdam (Aksant) 2004
- Reinier Bobbe z”l, Jan Sanberg, Ury Link, Moshe Mossel and Ben Noach: Jewish Genealogical research in The Netherlands, Akevoth 2016

Drenthe
- H. Hamburger en J.C. Regtien: Joodse oorlogsmonumenten in de provincie Drenthe, Bedum (Profiel) 1999
- Dr Jan Ridderbos: De Drentse Sjoa, Joodse oorlogsslachtoffers in de provincie Drenthe, Assen 2016 (Iwemabestseller.nl)
- Winnie van Hasselt en Henk van den Beukel: Sjoa Drenthe - Project over (Drents) historisch besef, de holocaust en onze identiteit, Waardeel 2016 nr. 3


Assen
- F.J. Hulst en H.M. Luning: De Joodse gemeente Assen. Geschiedenis van een behoorlijke kille, 1740-1976, Assen, Asser Historische Reeks III (Vanderveen) 1991 (Als verwijzing: Hulst&Luning)
- H.M. Luning, Andries Lezer, Brillenverkoper, rabbi en mohel (?) te Assen, Ons Waardeel 1988 no 3
- F.J. Hulst en H.M. Luning, Het joodse schooltje in Assen, Asser Hist. Tijdschr. 1991 no 2
- H.M. Luning, Geen bevrijding, de terugkeer van de joodse Assenaren, Asser Hist. Tijdschr. 1995 no 1
- (Benno ter Berg:) Het dagboek van Benno ter Berg, in Asser Historisch Tijdschrift, 1999

- Germa Greving en Jan Ridderbos: Asser oorlogsmonumenten. Herinneren en herdenken 1940-1945, Assen (van Gorcum) 2015
- Dr Jan Ridderbos, m.m.v. Mw J. Cohen Rapoport: Genealogieën Joodse Assenaren (eerste versie), Assen 2013
- Dr Jan Ridderbos, m.m.v. Mw Freda J. Cohen Rapoport en Mw Winnie van Hasselt: Genealogieën Joodse Assenaren (vervolg), Assen 2014
- Dr Jan Ridderbos, Kroniek van de Jodenvervolging te Assen, Assen 2016 (Iwemabestseller.nl)

Beilen
- H.M. Luning, De Beiler joden en het Bet Chajiem in Eursing, Tijdschr. Hist. Ver, Beilen 2007 no 1

Borger
- H.M. Luning, De Borgerder joden en hun bet chajiem, De Zwerfsteen 2007 no 3

Coevorden
- D. de Hes-Marbus, De gebroeders Berend en Bendix Salomons uit Coevorden, Ons Waardeel 1990 p.30
- H.M. Luning, Joods leven in Coevorden, De Ganzeveer 2007 no 3

Dwingeloo
- Thijs Jan Rinsema: De joodse inwoners van Dwingeloo 1754-1942, (Stichting Dwingels Eigen) 2011
- Thijs Rinsema en Erwin de Leeuw: Ontstaan en ondergang van een joodse gemeente; twee eeuwen joden in Dwingeloo ca. 1740-1942, Misjpoge, vol. 24 (2011), nr. 4, p. 124-131
- Reinder Smit: Dwingelo in oorlogstijd 1940-1945 Herinneringen en verslagen, (Uitgeverij Drenthe) 1995

Emmen
- G. Groothuis: Emmen in bezettingstijd. Een grensgemeente kort voor en tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog, Emmen (Stichting 4 Mei Comité) 1990
- Marcel Bulte: Hun namen worden niet vergeten. Struikelstenen voor de omgekomen joden in de gemeente Emmen, Beilen (Uitgeverij Drenthe) 2014

Gieten
- H. Kuik en W. van der Neut-Legemaat: Gieten, namen op de steen. De geschiedenis achter de namen op de gedenksteen te Gieten, Zuidwolde (het Drentse boek) 1994

Hoogeveen
- Salomon Jo Braaf: Mijn herinneringen aan de bezettingsjaren, Hoogeveen (Historische Kring Hoogeveen) 2015
- Max de Hes: Land loopt niet weg. Drie eeuwen Joods sociaal-economisch leven in Hoogeveen, Hoogeveen (uitgave in eigen beheer) 1994

Meppel
- dr. S.C. Derksen: Opkomst en ondergang van een toonaangevende joodse gemeente (250 jaar joods leven in Meppel), Meppel (ten Brink) 1988
- Thijs Jan Rinsema: Joden in Meppel, 1940-1945, (Walburg Pers) 2004

Rolde
- H.M. Luning, De kleine joodse gemeenschap in Rolde, De Kloetschup 2004 no 1

Ruinerwold
- Werkgroep Stichting Historie van Ruinerwold, "IN DE STILTE VAN DE NACHT, Ruinerwold in de jaren 1940-1945", Stichting Historie van Ruinerwold, 2017

Smilde
- H.M. Luning, Asser joden boos bij inwijding wetsrol in de synagoge te Smilde, Levend Verleden 2006 no 2

Westerbork
- Dr Jan Ridderbos, Joodse oorlogsslachtoffers, overleden te Westerbork en begraven te Assen, Assen 2010


Zuidlaren
- Geert C. Hovingh: Joods leven in Zuidlaren, Bedum (Profiel) 2000
- Geert C. Hovingh: Sporen van ene kleine kille. Wandeling langs joodse monumenten en gedenkstenen in Zuidlaren, Zuidlaren  (Vereniging Behoud Synagoge Zuidlaren) 2012

 

 

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